gentlemen Dou Shimin
senior engineer of the China Aerospace Science and industry Corporation by 23 at the 2
Hypersonic is cutting-edge technology being developed in this century’s new project. It is also known as “near space the Hypersonic vehicle” (NSHV). This aircraft flying at an altitude above ground level 20~100km the atmosphere of space, the space underneath the low Earth orbit satellites orbit, General aircraft flying at an altitude above, including the stratosphere, Mesosphere and part of the thermosphere. Near space areas is yet to be developed.
In the 1960 of the 20th century, the advent of intercontinental ballistic missiles, manned aircraft launching, manned spacecraft successfully returned a series of major scientific and technological achievements come out, marks mankind has entered a new era of hypersonic aircraft, also means the spacecraft and aircraft to enter the age of hypersonic vehicles.
Hypersonic flight speeds are above 5 times the speed of sound, the Mach 5 (MH), 6,000-kilometer\/h or more. According to reports, the Hypersonic weapons 6,000-kilometer about 35 minutes of flight, flying at about 10,285-kilometer, 8.4 times times the speed.
From technology of angle analysis, high supersonic aircraft while Fusion has space and Aviation of many frontier technology, these frontier technology and traditional aircraft technology compared, main has following several aspects features: complex of pneumatic characteristics; with Super burning stamping engine; aircraft body and engine integration; aircraft body and advance system and aircraft structure dynamic Zhijian coupled strong; aircraft model nonlinear degrees high; aircraft flight height, and speed span big; flight environment complex, moments changeable ; Tremendous change of thermal characteristics of aerodynamic characteristics and gas; control of high accuracy, Terminal guidance is difficult.
Origin of the Hypersonic vehicle, can be seen from the analysis of the following factors.
From the perspective of the anti-missile system
in the Soviet Union started to design the A-135 missile used States anti-missile system realized: to intercept a speed of 5~10 kilometers per second into the atmosphere of nuclear bombs, missiles should also be fitted with nuclear warheads. In other words, an enemy bomb is expected through the area, the Soviet interceptor missiles to destroy targets through nuclear explosion. Therefore, the national missile defense system needs a high supersonic aircraft carrying a nuclear bomb.
From the angle of attackSee, super high speed aircraft to missile defense system threaten the very big due to speed and small target scattering cross section, mobile, existing anti-missile systems have been unable to intercept. This will to a certain extent to change existing patterns of war.
Hypersonic missiles have 6th generation breakthrough in aviation technology related. Hypersonic is an extremely effective tool of suppression. Modern radar equipment to distinguish the Hypersonic Flight. Now does not exist, it is difficult to foresee when intercepting Hypersonic missile tool appears.
From the perspective of space shuttle
X-37B (Boeing Company) is a miniature space shuttle, known as “space fighter”, can quickly enter the orbital maneuver, after completion of the task can be the re-entry, glide landing base. It is called “space plane”, because X-37B represent the pattern of future air and space combat, which quickly launched into orbit by the rocket platform, waiting time at the track. And X-37B also can perform the task to combat enemy satellites in orbit, orbital combat “all-rounder”.
In March 2011, X-37B by a rocket into orbit, planned flight 9 months flew again after 6 months. June 2012 to return to Earth. The machine weighs about 5 tons, 8.8 meters long and 2.9 meters high, a wingspan of 4.6 meters, speed of Mach 25.
Russia physico-mathematical candidate Nikola · Grigorev said: “routine Hypersonic missile speed is Mach 2~3. We hope the aircraft exceeded Mach 6. This Hypersonic aircraft we have ever had, like ‘ storm ‘, the space shuttle, it enters the dense atmosphere speed of Mach 25. Today’s task is to get the flying ‘ autonomy ‘ and also can independently develop and maintain a high supersonic velocities. “It is easy to see Russia in the development of hypersonic vehicle is to consider the transformation of research achievements of the space shuttle, gives birth to Hypersonic aircraft model was born.
From the angle of the development of unmanned aircraft systems
as early as in the 1960 of the 20th century, United States research D-21 high speed, high altitude unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, using impulse engines, service ceiling up to 29,000 meters, and maximum speed of Mach 3.35. United States claimed the model is unable to shoot down any anti-aircraft weapons. Developing such a high altitude, high speed drones, weaknesses that cannot afford modern air defense systems, and the new weapon of attack.
Later, United States X-43A\/B is also studied, and Hypersonic. X-43A 9.7 Mach to Hypersonic record, a shock to the world, is compelling.
According to reports, United Kingdom MQ-9″Death” drone successfully completed missile launch tests, the aircraft dropped “Brimstone” dual mode missile, 9 had succeeded in hitting the target, its guide millimeter-wave and semi-active laser guidance integrated. Put on the height of 6096 meters, put a distance of 7~12 kilometers. Operator to manually and automatically tracked targets. This test has a different meaning, if there is nuclear missiles, this trial is successful, also means that airburst nukes don’t have to done by people in the future. In addition, the drone bombing, this is commonplace.
In February this year, United Kingdom Ministry of defence and BEA jointly announced the first stealth unmanned aircraft systems group “Thor”. The aircraft can be X-47B with the United States and France have developed a “neuron” compared to drones, scheduled to be commissioned in 2030. This machine is characterized by good stealth performance, fast speed, high survival capability and reliability. The machine has a maximum takeoff weight of 8,000 kilograms, Captain 12-metre wingspan of 10 metres, height 3.98 m, Adoul 951 engine and a delta wing. This machine can be used anywhere in the world via a satellite data link control is currently for semi-automatic operation, controlled by a ground station, target information back to ground stations across the network, to be upgraded to a fully automatic in the future.
Unmanned aircraft systems become effective tools for the global fight against this development thinking and development of hypersonic vehicles aimed at the same, which indicates that both research and development may converge.
From the perspective of ASAT
Titans produced by high altitude solar-powered drone, with a wingspan of 60 m, and 3000 on the wing panels, payload up to 115 kg. The aircraft can be flown in the 20,000-meter height to 5 years. Would be similar to the Earth-synchronous satellite, available as a special communication device can also speed of 1G\/s data transmission (it’s harder than a lot of countries have developed faster broadband speeds).
In addition, the purpose behind this trial, could also take advantage of the drone replacement satellite fake satellite failure, probably will develop anti-satellite tool. This research and development trends, also showed that ASAT is a necessary means of war battle for air supremacy in the future, but also developing Hypersonic aims to also indicate that research and development on the anti-satellite issue may practice. X-37B can perform the task to combat enemy satellites in orbit.
From the perspective of anti aircraft carrier battle group
standard defensive missile, capable of striking mobile targets such as supersonic bomber, it can’t handle Hypersonic gliding vehicle. If Hypersonic gliding vehicle hit the target directly, using conventional warheads, would be enough to make the carrier exits fight. United States through carrier battle group the Navy wants to United States military strategic vision projected into the crisis area, Hypersonic vehicles would pose a serious threat to —— this would undermine United States naval dominance in the Pacific.
Experts predict that once served high supersonic anti-ship missiles, weaponry could lead to regular air raids and air defense weapons and equipment changes.
In the 1970 of the 20th century, the Soviet Union was the first to use SS-NX-13 ballistic missiles, anti-ship missiles, whose range was 700~1100 km, flight speed Mach 4 or above, mainly used to attack the United States aircraft carrier fleet. But it did not serve, probably because final guidance does not pass, accuracy is poor.
Above, high supersonic aircraft is based on aviation and space technology of development, by proposed of days base on to new development weapons project, contains level landing space carries device, and again into aircraft, and high supersonic cruise aircraft, variety type, they has flight speed fast, and flight height high, and military response capacity fast, and high bursting anti-capacity, and can in short time within arrived in global any a area, implementation combat various military target. This relative strength on the international strategic situation, military, technological and economic development, have a major and far-reaching impact. It will be a century of aeronautical and Astronautical technology research and development of new high ground, and inventions following aircraft in aviation history, the aircraft flew at supersonic speed after a breakthrough, is the third milestone of landmark.